Информация за страница Degree

The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied. In the facilities of arts or grammar scholars became known as “master” but those in medicine, law and theology were known as “doctor” The degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree as study in the grammar or arts was a necessary prerequisite to study in such subjects as law, medicine and theology. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy known as PhD, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from eighteenth and nineteenth century German universities, is a more advanced degree than a Master of Arts. The practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within universities in Germany and spread across the academic world. Tied closely to the original meanings of the terms is the French Terminology. The baccalaureat is conferred upon French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and admits the student to university.

   Students awarded license when they graduate from university, much as the medieval teaching guilds would have done, and they are qualified to teach in secondary schools or proceed to higher-level studies. Degrees in the past have also been directly issued by the authority of the monarch or by a bishop, rather than any educational institution. This practice has mostly died out. Lambeth degrees are still awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury in Great Britain. Gaining an academic degree in most countries entitles the holder to assure distinctive academic dress particular to the awarding institution, identifying the status of the individual wearing them. More men than women traditionally attended and earned certificates in the world’s universities. According to the results of 2010 census a milestone was reached in the United States as women surpassed men in attaining master degrees for the first time. There are various conventions for indicating degrees and diplomas after one’s name. It is usual to give only the highest degree in some cultures. In others is usual to give fill sequence, in some cases giving abbreviations also for the discipline, the institution and the level of honors where it applies.

    Since the late 19th century in Canada and United States the threefold degree system of bachelor, master and doctor has been in place, but follows a slightly different pattern of study from the European equivalent. Most of the standard academic programs in these two countries are based on the 4-year bachelor’s degree, most often Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. Mostly junior and community colleges and some of the 4-year schools offer an associate degree for 2 full years of study, often in pre-professional areas. This sometimes may be used as credit toward completion of the 4-year bachelor’s degree or stand alone. There is also another class of degrees in USA and Canada called First professional degree. The programs are designed for professional practice in various fields rather than academic scholarship. Most of the programs require a prior bachelor’s degree for admission and so represent at least about 5 total years of study and as many as 7 or 8.

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